# Basic Math Symbols – Geometry, Algebra, Greek, Logic, Number

Here you will get a list of basic math symbols. Also, you can find specific mathematical symbols with their sign, and meaning.

We have divided the tables into 7 subparts. So, you can find your symbol easily.

So, let’s start. ## Basic Math Symbols

Symbol Name Meaning
= equals sign equality
approximately equal approximation
> strict inequality greater than
< strict inequality less than
inequality greater than or equal to
inequality less than or equal to
( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first
minus sign subtraction
± plus – minus both plus and minus operations
± minus – plus both minus and plus operations
* asterisk multiplication
× times sign multiplication
multiplication dot multiplication
÷ division sign / obelus division
/ division slash division
horizontal line division / fraction
mod modulo remainder calculation
. period decimal point, decimal separator
ab power exponent
a^b caret exponent
a square root aa  = a
3a cube root 3a3a  ⋅ 3a  = a
4a fourth root 4a4a  ⋅ 4a  ⋅ 4a  = a
% percent 1% = 1/100
per-mille 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%
ppm per-million 1ppm = 1/1000000
ppb per-billion 1ppb = 1/1000000000
ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12

## Algebra Symbols

Symbol Name Meaning
x x variable unknown value to find
equivalence identical to
equal by definition equal by definition
:= equal by definition equal by definition
~ approximately equal weak approximation
approximately equal approximation
proportional to proportional to
lemniscate infinity symbol
much less than much less than
much greater than much greater than
( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first
{ } braces set
x floor brackets rounds number to lower integer
x ceiling brackets rounds number to upper integer
x! exclamation mark factorial
| x | vertical bars absolute value
f (x) function of x maps values of x to f(x)
(fg) function composition (fg) (x) = f (g(x))
(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b}
[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | axb}
delta change / difference
discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac
sigma summation – sum of all values in range of series
∑∑ sigma double summation
capital pi product – product of all values in range of series
e e constant / Euler’s number e = 2.718281828…
γ Euler-Mascheroni constant γ = 0.5772156649…
φ golden ratio golden ratio constant
π pi constant π = 3.141592654… is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

## Linear Algebra Symbols

Symbol Name Meaning
· dot scalar product
× cross vector product
AB tensor product tensor product of A and B
< x,y > inner product
[ ] brackets matrix of numbers
( ) parentheses matrix of numbers
| A | determinant determinant of matrix A
det(A) determinant determinant of matrix A
|| x || double vertical bars norm
AT transpose matrix transpose
A Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose
A* Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose
A-1 inverse matrix A A-1 = I
rank(A) matrix rank rank of matrix A
dim(U) dimension dimension of matrix A

## Logic symbols

Symbol Name Meaning
and and
^ caret / circumflex and
& ampersand and
+ plus or
reversed caret or
| vertical line or
x single quote not – negation
x bar not – negation
¬ not not – negation
! exclamation mark not – negation
circled plus / oplus exclusive or – xor
~ tilde negation
implies
equivalent if and only if (iff)
equivalent if and only if (iff)
for all
there exists
there does not exists
therefore
because / since

## Numeral Symbols

Name Western Arabic Roman
zero 0
one 1 I
two 2 II
three 3 III
four 4 IV
five 5 V
six 6 VI
seven 7 VII
eight 8 VIII
nine 9 IX
ten 10 X
eleven 11 XI
twelve 12 XII
thirteen 13 XIII
fourteen 14 XIV
fifteen 15 XV
sixteen 16 XVI
seventeen 17 XVII
eighteen 18 XVIII
nineteen 19 XIX
twenty 20 XX
thirty 30 XXX
forty 40 XL
fifty 50 L
sixty 60 LX
seventy 70 LXX
eighty 80 LXXX
ninety 90 XC
one hundred 100 C

## Greek Alphabet Symbols

Upper Case Lower Case Greek Letter
Α α Alpha
Β β Beta
Γ γ Gamma
Δ δ Delta
Ε ε Epsilon
Ζ ζ Zeta
Η η Eta
Θ θ Theta
Ι ι Iota
Κ κ Kappa
Λ λ Lambda
Μ μ Mu
Ν ν Nu
Ξ ξ Xi
Ο ο Omicron
Π π Pi
Ρ ρ Rho
Σ σ Sigma
Τ τ Tau
Υ υ Upsilon
Φ φ Phi
Χ χ Chi
Ψ ψ Psi
Ω ω Omega

## Roman Numerals

Number Roman Numeral
0 not defined
1 I
2 II
3 III
4 IV
5 V
6 VI
7 VII
8 VIII
9 IX
10 X
11 XI
12 XII
13 XIII
14 XIV
15 XV
16 XVI
17 XVII
18 XVIII
19 XIX
20 XX
30 XXX
40 XL
50 L
60 LX
70 LXX
80 LXXX
90 XC
100 C
200 CC
300 CCC
400 CD
500 D
600 DC
700 DCC
800 DCCC
900 CM
1000 M
5000 V
10000 X
50000 L
100000 C
500000 D
1000000 M

Above all are the math symbols with their values and their names. Please share it if you like it.